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Humanities: MLA Citation Guide

General MLA Citation Guides

The preferred citation style for Humanities Courses at Daley College is MLA (Modern Language Association).  The resources below can help you learn how to format your citations.

MLA In-Text Citations

There are two things you need when citing something in a paper: an in-text citation and a bibliographic entry.  An in-text citation is the limited amount of information that your reader can use to look through your cited list/bibliography and find the full bibliographic entry so that she can access the cited work if necessary.  In MLA, a basic in-text citation in an essay is made up of whatever comes first in the bibliographic entry (author's last name or the title of an anonymous work) and, if there are any, the page numbers where you found the quote or data or information (p. X for one page, pp. X-Y for multiple pages).  If there is no author, instead put the title or a shortened version of the title.  If you have multiple works by the same author in your bibliography, you should include the author's last name and a shortened version of the title.  For more information and examples, check out the MLA Style Center.

In-text citation for a source with page numbers:

If you are citing a book with the following bibliographic entry:

Diamond, Jared.  Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies.  W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.

...then your in-text citation would look like this:

Diamond argues: "the striking differences between long-term histories of peoples of the different continents have been due...to differences in their environments" (p. 405).​

OR

"The striking differences between long-term histories of peoples of the different continents have been due...to differences in their environments" (Diamond, p. 405).

In-text citation for multiple books by the same author:

If, however, your bibliography has multiple works by Jared Diamond, or multiple works by two or more authors with the last name Diamond, your in-text citation should include a shortened version of the title:

"The striking differences between long-term histories of peoples of the different continents have been due...to differences in their environments" (Diamond, Guns, p. 405).

In-text citations for sources without page numbers:

If, for example, you are citing a painting by Seurat, with the following bibliographic entry:

Seurat, Georges.  A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.  1884-86, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.  Georges Seurat: The Art of Vision, by Michelle Foa, Yale University Press, 2015, p. 64.

...then your in-text citation should look like:

Seurat also gives insight into how nineteenth-century Europeans utilized green spaces.

OR

Contemporary artwork shows that nineteenth-century Europeans enjoyed relaxing in green spaces (Seurat).

In-text citations for an anonymous work:

In-text citations utilize the first word of a bibliographic entry.  If a work is anonymous, then the first part of your bibliographic entry is the title.  So, if you have a bibliographic entry for this book:

The Táin.  Translated by Thomas Kinsella, brush drawings by Louis Le Brocquy, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, 1970.

...then your in-text citation would look like:

Another powerful woman in Irish legend is Crunniuc mac Agnomain's wife, who curses the men of Ulster to endure the labor pains of a mother in childbirth whenever Ulster is in peril (The Táin, pp. 6-8).

MLA Core Elements

MLA identifies that there are up to nine core elements to look for when preparing a bibliographic citation for a source or work.  While you should try to fill in as many elements as you can, most sources will not have values for all nine elements; the only core element you always must have is #2 Title.  There are also two optional elements that you may decide to include for citing works of art, images, and websites.

The other key concept in MLA citations, other than core elements, is the concept of a source's containerA container is a broader work in which the source is found.  Your source may have no container, or multiple containers!  For example, a one-off printed book by one author has no container, while an album is the container of a single song.

  1. Author: The name(s) of the primary creator of the source.  If the author is a person, you put in the first and last name of the author, but if the author has only one name (like a handle), or if the author is an organization, then it is just one name.  If the author is unknown, start the citation with the title instead.  The author's name in a citation is almost always followed by a period.
  2. Title: The full title of the source given by the author.  This is the only core element that you MUST have; if the source gives no title, put in your own short description to act as the title.  The main title is almost always followed by a period.  The exact formatting of the title can vary, but here's the general breakdown:
    • Italicized title: Italicize the title of books, journal titles, and formal given names of works of art.
    • "Title in Quotation Marks": Put the title of articles or chapters found in journals or articles in quotations.
    • Title in plain text: if the author gave the work no formal title, you must give it (or a museum may have already have given it) a short description as a title.  If so, this title is not written in italics or in quotation marks.
  3. Title of container: If applicable, the title of the published work in which your source appears.  For example, an article's container is the book or journal in which it is published.
  4. Contributor: If applicable, the names of people other than the author who took part in bringing you this source and how they contributed to it (for example, so-and-so translated the book).
  5. Version: If you are not citing the original work or first edition, you need to note what edition you are citing.
  6. Number: If your source is one in a sequence of sources, then you need to note the number in the sequence.  This is common for noting the volume and issue number of a journal or newspaper.
  7. Publisher: The name of the institution that published the source.
  8. Publication date: For something published, the date the publisher published the work.  For an unprinted work of art or image, the date or range of dates over which the work was produced.  If the item has a specific date, then format it day month abbreviated year (for example, 17 Nov. 2022).

*Medium (optional): If you are citing a work of art, you can if you want at this point put in the materials of the artwork (for example, oil on canvas or photograph).

  1. Location: The place in which the source is found.  Examples include the museum in which a sculpture is displayed, the archives holding the manuscript, the page numbers in which the article appears in the journal, or the URL (ideally, a permalink or DOI) of the website.  Your source may have multiple locations; for example, if you are writing an entry for a digitized journal article, the locations would be the pages of the article AND the URL.  In MLA, a location is different than a container!

*Access date (optional): If you are citing a website (as opposed to a DOI or permalink) you can at this point put in the date on which you access the website.  This can be a good idea as websites (as opposed to DOIs or permalinks) can quickly change or be deleted.  Format the access date day month abbreviated year (for example, Accessed on 17 Nov. 2022).

The core elements can then be plugged in to make your citation in order, minus the core elements for which there were no answers.  For example, if your source only has core elements 1, 2, 7, and 8 (like many books), then your citation would just be:

#1 Author Last Name, First Name.  #2 Title.  #7 Publisher, #8 Date.

Foa, Michelle.  Georges Seurat: The Art of Vision.  Yale University Press, 2015.

If your work has a container, type in all the values that you have, #1-9, for the original source, and put a period; then, put in all the values you have for the container, #3-9 (see the examples below). The exact formatting for your citation, from what to italicize to where to put periods or commas, will depend on the type of resource for which you are making a citation (see the examples below). 

To look at examples or use a practice temple, check out the MLA Style Center website!

Using Stable URLs/Permalinks/DOIs

A bibliographic citation is meant to give the reader all of the information she needs to find and access the source being cited.  When citing a website, that means including the web address, otherwise known as the URL or Uniform Resource Locator.  Citing websites can be tricky.  While many works on the internet are freely open to anyone, many others are only available to verified users with a login or users who pay to get access to something behind a paywall.  If you are citing a source that requires a login or is behind a paywall, you MUST use what is variously called a stable URL or permalink.  

One specific type of stable URL is a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), a URL which is permanently linked to that object.  Anyone making online content can register their content with the DOI organization.  DOIs all begin https://www.doi.org or https://doi.org

Finding a stable URL or DOI on JSTOR:

JSTOR is one of the best and most popular databases for finding academic journal articles.  When you search for and click on an article, look to the left side.  If need be, click on the info tab, and use either the DOI or Stable URL.

Finding a stable URL on EBSCO Academic Search Complete:

Academic Search Complete is another great and popular database for academic articles and books.  When you search for and click on an article or item, look for the Permalink option with the chain link icon at the bottom of the right-side menu.  Click on it, and a Permalink will appear above the title of the article, like in the image below.

Hanging Indentations and Annotations

Hanging Indentations

MLA (and other citation styles) require that you format your bibliographical entries with hanging indentations.  A hanging indentation is when your top line sticks out half an inch to the left past any remaining lines below.  Hanging indentations make bibliography lists easier to search through::

Dooley, Kevin.  Viewing Seurat.  26 Aug. 2010, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Viewing_Seurat_(5000489105).jpg.  Accessed 19 Oct. 2022.

Foa, Michelle.  Georges Seurat: The Art of Vision.  Yale University Press, 2015.

Seurat, Georges.  A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.  1884-86, oil on canvas, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.  Joy of Museums Virtual Tourshttps://joyofmuseums.com/museums/united-states-of-america/chicago-museums/art-institute-of-chicago/a-sunday-afternoon-on-the-island-of-la-grande-jatte/.  Accessed 19 Oct. 2022.

How to Format Hanging Indentations

Microsoft Word: Highlight the text you wish to format to hanging indentation, or get to where you want to start formatting that way.  Under the Home tab at the top, look for the Paragraph section of the menu (it looks like the above image).  Click on the tiny expand box in the bottom right corner. 

The menu to the right should appear.  In the middle, under Indentation, there is a pull-down menu labelled Special.  Click on it, and select Hanging.  The box to the right, By, should automatically set to 0.5" or half an inch.

Google Docs: There is a similar way to format hanging indentations in Google Docs.  Highlight the text you want to format that way, or get to the place in your document where you want to start formatting hanging indentations.  On the top menu bar, click on Format, then Align & Indent, and then Indentation Options.  Under Special indent, select Hanging and set it to .5 (inches).

Apple Pages, Microsoft Word, and Google Docs: All three programs allow you to format a hanging indentation through the ruler function.  Highlight the text you want to format that way or get to where you want to start formatting that way.  Then, if it is not already on, turn on the ruler function: in Microsoft Word, click on View in the top menu, and check the box for Ruler, or else type in Show Ruler into the Tell me what you want to do search; if you are using Apple Pages or Google Docs, click on View in the top menu, and select Show Ruler.  A ruler like this should appear:

Look for the hourglass-shaped triangles and box on the left.  Click and hold on the box at the bottom of the hourglass, and slide it it half an inch to the right.  Then, click on the top downward-pointing triangle, and slide it half an inch back to the left, where it started.

In Apple Pages and Google Docs, the ruler looks like this:

Look for the blue triangle and bar on the left.  Click and hold on the downward-pointing blue triangle, and slide it it half an inch to the right.  Then, click on the top little blue bar, and slide it half an inch back to the left, where it started.

A Hack for Formatting Hanging Indentations in Other Programs

If the program or platform you are typing in does not have any option for making hanging indentations, you can always try preparing the hanging indented entries in Word, Pages, or Google Docs, and then copying and pasting them into the uncooperative program.  That's what I had to do to get hanging indents to work in this LibGuide!

Annotations

An annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes a short summary/analysis of the bibliographic entries.  The annotation appears after the bibliographic entry and is indented with the same hanging indent:

Seurat, Georges.  A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.  1884-86, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.  Georges Seurat: The Art of Vision, by Michelle Foa, Yale University Press, 2015, p. 64.

              Seurat’s masterpiece is considered the greatest example of pointillism, or, applying paint to the canvas strictly through the use of dots.  It is considered one of the first neo-impressionist works of art…

For more annotated bibliography examples, check out Purdue OWL.

Using MLA Core Elements

Let's go through a few practice examples!  What are the core elements for this basic book, and how would you turn them into a bibliographic citation?

  1. Author: Diamond, Jared​

  2. Title: Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

  3. Title of container: N/A​

  4. Contributor: N/A​

  5. Version: N/A​

  6. Number: N/A​

  7. Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company​

  8. Publication date: 1997​

  9. Location: N/A

Plug in those elements, and you have:

#1 Author's last name, first name.  #2 Book Title.  #7 Publisher, #8 Publication date.​

Diamond, Jared.  Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies.  W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.

Let's try a more complicated book!

  1. Author: Anonymous (skip it)​

  2. Title: The Táin​

  3. Title of container: N/A​

  4. Contributors: translated by Thomas Kinsella, brush drawings by Louis Le Brocquy​

  5. Version: 2nd ed.​

  6. Number: N/A​

  7. Publisher: Oxford University Press​

  8. Publication date: 1970​

  9. Location: N/A

Plug those in, and you have:

#2 Book Title.  #4 Contributed by contributors, #5 Version, #7 Publisher, #8 Publication date.​

The Táin.  Translated by Thomas Kinsella, brush drawings by Louis Le Brocquy, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, 1970.

Now, let's try an online news article

  1. Author: Sudworth, John​

  2. Title: “The faces from China's Uyghur detention camps."​

  3. Title of container: BBC​

  4. Contributor: N/A​

  5. Version: N/A​

  6. Number: N/A​

  7. Publisher: N/A​

  8. Publication date: May 2022​

  9. Location: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/extra/85qihtvw6e/the-faces-from-chinas-uyghur-detention-camps?utm_source=digg

  • Access date: Accessed 15 Nov. 2022

#1 Author's last name, first name.  "#2 Title."  #3 Title of container, #8 Publication date, #9 Location. *Access date.​

Sudworth, John. “The faces from China's Uyghur detention camps.” BBC, May 2022,  https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/extra/85qihtvw6e/the-faces-from-chinas-uyghur-detention-camps?utm_source=digg.  Accessed 15 Nov. 2022.

Finally, let's try citing an academic journal article found from an online database.  This is tricky!  It involves two containers: the journal, and the online database:

Primary Work in First Container​

  1. Author: Samatar, Sofia​

  2. Title: “Toward a Planetary History of Afrofuturism”​

  3. Title of container: Research in African Literatures (journal)​

  4. Contributor: N/A​

  5. Version: N/A​

  6. Number: vol. 48, no. 4​

  7. Publisher: N/A​

  8. Publication date: 2017​

  9. Location: pages 175-191/pp. 175-91

Second Container​

  1. Author: N/A​

  2. Title: N/A​

  3. Title of second container: JSTOR (journal database)​

  4. Contributor: N/A​

  5. Version: N/A​

  6. Number: N/A​

  7. Publisher: N/A​

  8. Publication date: N/A​

  9. Location: https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.48.4.12

  • Access Date: Accessed 11 Nov. 2022

#1 Author's last name, first name.  "#2 Title."  #3 Title of first container, #6 Number, #8 Publication date, #9 Location.  #3 Title of second container, #9 Location of work in second container.  *Access date.​

Samatar, Sofia. “Toward a Planetary History of Afrofuturism.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 48, no. 4, 2017, pp. 175–91. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.48.4.12. Accessed 11 Nov. 2022.

Citing Images in MLA

Citing an image or work of art viewed in person

Pretend that you are one of the people in this photograph at the Art Institute of Chicago looking at Georges Seurat's A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.  You collect the following core elements from the placard to the side of the painting:

  1. Author: Georges Seurat
  2. Title: A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
  3. Title of container: N/A
  4. Contributor: None
  5. Version: original, so leave blank
  6. Number: N/A
  7. Publisher: N/A
  8. Publication date: 1884-1886
  9. Location: The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago

Afterwards, you go home and write a paper referencing this painting that you saw.  Using the core elements, how would you cite it?

Seurat, Georges.  A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.  1884-86, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.

MLA used to require that citations for sources like paintings include the medium, or the materials from which the source is made.  According to the 9th edition of the MLA handbook, this is now optional.  That said, depending on your research, you may decide that it is important to include the medium in the citation.  If you do so, put the medium (in this case, oil on canvas) in after #8 Date of publication and before #9 Location:

Seurat, Georges.  A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.  1884-86, oil on canvas, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.

For more examples of citing images viewed in person, check out the MLA Style Center.

Above image courtesy Kevin Dooley

Citing that same work, but as viewed from a book

What if, instead of going to the Art Institute, you instead were flipping through the following book at Daley College Library, and found an image of Seurat's A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte on page 64.  What core elements could you collect?

  1. Author: Georges Seurat
  2. Title: A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
  3. Title of container: Georges Seurat: The Art of Vision
  4. Contributor: Michelle Foa (author of the container book)
  5. Version: N/A
  6. Number: N/A
  7. Publisher: Yale University Press
  8. Publication date: the painting was made between 1884-86, but the container book was published in 2015
  9. Location: original painting is at the Art Institute of Chicago, the printed version is on page 64 of the container book

Now, using these core elements, how would you cite it?

Seurat, Georges.  A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.  1884-86, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.  Georges Seurat: The Art of Vision, by Michelle Foa, Yale University Press, 2015, p. 64.

For more examples of citing an image from a book, check out the MLA Style Guide.

Remember: if you want to cite painting AND an idea from the book, you should do so separately.  Here's how you'd cite just the book:

Foa, Michelle.  Georges Seurat: The Art of Vision.  Yale University Press, 2015.

Citing that same image, but viewed from a website

What if, instead of going to the Art Institute or finding the painting in a book, you instead find it on this website? What would be the core elements?

  1. Author: Georges Seurat
  2. Title: A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
  3. Title of container: Joy of Museums Virtual Tours website
  4. Contributor: Container website gives no specific contributor name
  5. Version: original, so leave blank
  6. Number: N/A
  7. Publisher: N/A
  8. Publication date: Seurat painted the work between 1884-1886, the website version was not posted on a particular date
  9. Location: The original is at the Art Institute of Chicago, but the image is at https://joyofmuseums.com/museums/united-states-of-america/chicago-museums/art-institute-of-chicago/a-sunday-afternoon-on-the-island-of-la-grande-jatte/

So, how would you cite it?

Seurat, Georges.  A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.  1884-86, oil on canvas, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.  Joy of Museums Virtual Tourshttps://joyofmuseums.com/museums/united-states-of-america/chicago-museums/art-institute-of-chicago/a-sunday-afternoon-on-the-island-of-la-grande-jatte/.  Accessed 19 Oct. 2022.

Although technically optional for MLA, adding the date that you accessed the online item can be a good idea, given that online works can be quickly edited or erased.

Citing a photograph of that same work

Instead of going to the Art Institute yourself, or finding the image in a book on a website, your friend Sheila Black emails you a picture she took of that painting at the museum.  What would the core elements be?

  1. Author: Georges Seurat
  2. Title: A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
  3. Title of container: N/A
  4. Contributor: Sheila Black, photographer
  5. Version: photograph of the original at the museum
  6. Number: N/A
  7. Publisher: N/A
  8. Publication date: 1884-1886, but the picture was taken on March 4, 2021
  9. Location: The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago

How would you cite it?

Seurat, Georges.  A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.  1884-86, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.  Photographed by Sheila Black, 4 Mar. 2021.

Citing a photograph of that same work that is not just a reproduction of the work, but the work and other things

Of course, you weren't actually in this image.  You instead found this particular photo online, at a site where the photographer provided his name (Kevin Dooley), the title he gave to his photograph (Viewing Seurat), and the date he took it.  While it is a photograph of Seurat's painting, there is also a lot more in the picture.  The primary creator of this work is not Seurat anymore, but Dooley.  What, therefore, are the core elements?

  1. Author: Kevin Dooley
  2. Title: Viewing Seurat
  3. Title of container: N/A
  4. Contributor: N/A
  5. Version: N/A
  6. Number: N/A
  7. Publisher: N/A
  8. Publication date: The picture was taken on August 26, 2010
  9. Location: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Viewing_Seurat_(5000489105).jpg

How, therefore, would you cite it?

Dooley, Kevin.  Viewing Seurat.  26 Aug. 2010, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Viewing_Seurat_(5000489105).jpg.  Accessed 19 Oct. 2022.

Citing a selfie taken with the work

What if you did go to the Art Institute and took a selfie with the painting?  What would the core elements be?

  1. Author: your name (let's say your name is Gabriella Gonzalez) (as a selfie is not a reproduction of the painting, but a picture you took of yourself with the painting, you, the selfie-taker, are now the primary creator of the image)
  2. Title: It is your photograph so you get to name it!  A good rule of thumb is to name it something descriptive.  Let's go with: Selfie with A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte by Georges Seurat
  3. Title of container: N/A
  4. Contributor: N/A
  5. Version: N/A
  6. Number: N/A
  7. Publisher: N/A
  8. Publication date: The date the selfie was taken (let's say October 26, 2022)
  9. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago

How would you cite that?

Gonzalez, Gabriella.  Selfie with A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte by Georges Seurat.  26 Oct. 2022,  Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.

Citing Your Own Photograph that Does Not Have Another Work In It

You take a picture of this neat-looking leaf.  How would you cite it?

  1. Author: your name (let's say its Johann Dean)
  2. Title: It is your photo, so you can give it a formal title (how about Reflecting on Fall?) or a descriptive title (Photograph of a brown autumn leaf).  If the title is a description, then it is not italicized.
  3. Title of container: N/A
  4. Contributor: N/A
  5. Version: N/A
  6. Number: N/A
  7. Publisher: N/A
  8. Publication date: Date the photo was taken
  9. Location: Location where you took the photo

Dean, Johann.  Photograph of a brown autumn leaf.  27 Oct. 2022, Oak Park, IL.

Or, if you decide to give is a formal name:

Dean, Johann.  Reflecting on Fall.  27 Oct. 2022, photograph, Oak Park, IL.

That may be how you want to cite your own photograph; if you actually wanted to cite this photograph of a brown leaf, remember that you yourself are getting it from this website!  Your citation should be:

Dean, Johann.  Photograph of a brown autumn leaf.  27 Oct. 2022, photograph, Oak Park, IL.  Humanities: MLA Citation Guide, City Colleges of Chicago Richard J. Daley College, https://researchguides.ccc.edu/c.php?g=1277306&p=9372594.  Accessed 9 Nov. 2022.

Citing a work of art without an author viewed in person

You go to the Oriental Institute Museum in Chicago and see this fantastic statue.  You take a picture of the description placard to the side of the statue and collect the following core elements:

  1. Author: unknown
  2. Title: No formal title, but the museum calls it Winged bull (lamassu).  Since it is not a formal title but a description, do not italicize it.
  3. Title of container: N/A
  4. Contributor: N/A
  5. Version: original, so leave blank
  6. Number: N/A
  7. Publisher: N/A
  8. Publication date: 8th c. BCE
  9. Location: The Oriental Institute, Chicago

Afterwards, you go home and write a paper referencing this statue that you saw.  Using the core elements, how would you cite it?

Winged bull (lamassu). 8th c. BCE, Oriental Institute, Chicago.   OR

Winged bull (lamassu). 8th c. BCE, gypsum with restoration, Oriental Institute, Chicago.

Citing a work of art in a container

While at the Oriental Institute Museum, you see the above work of art.  It appears to be a work of art (the top left stonework) embedded into a larger modern work.  You want to cite the work as a whole for a paper for a modern art history course, and you also want to cite the older stonework in the corner for a humanities paper.  You study the placard and collect two sets of core elements.  For the work as a whole, you collect:

  1. Author: Michael Rakowitz
  2. Title: Reappearance of Panel G-13
  3. Title of container: N/A
  4. Contributor: N/A
  5. Version: N/A
  6. Number: N/A
  7. Publisher: N/A
  8. Publication date: 2019
  9. Location: The Oriental Institute, Chicago

Making for the following citation:

Rakowitz, Michael.  Reappearance of Panel G-13. 2019, the Oriental Institute, Chicago.

For the stonework embedded in the top corner, you collect the following core elements:

  1. Author: unknown
  2. Title: no formal title, but the museum has given it a descriptive title: Relief fragment showing the Assyrian King
  3. Title of container: Reappearance of Panel G-13
  4. Contributor: Michael Rakowitz
  5. Version: N/A
  6. Number: N/A
  7. Publisher: N/A
  8. Publication date: 9th c. BCE, but the container is from 2019
  9. Location: The Oriental Institute, Chicago

Making for the following citation:

Relief fragment showing the Assyrian King. 9th c. BCE.  Reappearance of Panel G-13, by Michael Rakowitz, 2019, the Oriental Institute, Chicago.