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English LibGuide for HWC: Amy Rosenquist

Welcome to the Library Guide for Eng 101/097 - Professor Rosenquist


This guide will help students compose their English 101/97 research assignments.


Assignments and Research Assistance

Investigate a career and write a report on it using personal experience and the Occupational Outlook Handbook. You can access this resource online at

Do not use any other online or print source without permission.  To find information about a career on, type your query into the search box like this:



Choose one of the following options:


1. For students who are transferring to complete a Bachelor's Degree: select two four-year colleges or universities (e.g. DePaul and UIC) that you would like to transfer to after attending HWC. Try searching DuckDuckGo or Google for universities and programs that interest you:

Search for your school and program of choice. To make sure you get .edu sites, add to the end of your search.


2. For students who are completing an Associate's Degree: choose two City Colleges or other Associate’s Degree programs (e.g. Nursing and Radiology). Search the CCC website for information about programs of interest:

In the upper right hand corner of CCC webpages you can search for pages about the department of your choice.


3. For students who are completing a basic or advanced certificate, apprenticeship, or vocational training: Choose two schools or programs that offer the education you will need for your career. The CCC Academic Catalog has information about all of our programs. Search the catalog for programs that interest you:

You can search for information about all our programs in the catalalog.


4. For students who are only considering one college or university: Choose two majors or specializations within one major at that university (e.g. Music Business vs Music Performance at Columbia College).

Search for a program at Columbia College.

Primary Sources

primary source is an original object or document from a specific time or event under study. Primary sources include historical and legal documents, interviews, eyewitness accounts, results of experiments, survey data, observations, diaries, letters, photographs, videos, paintings, works of literature, ancient pieces of pottery unearthed in Iraq, government documents, statistics and more. In the natural and social sciences, primary sources are often empirical studies — research where an experiment was done or a direct observation was made.

secondary source is anything that’s written about a primary source, such as  an essay about a novel, a  newspaper article about AIDS research, a history textbook, a movie review, or subsequent thoughts on The Gettysburg Address.

Tertiary sources use primary and secondary courses to construct a narrative and/or theory. Examples of tertiary sources are encyclopedias and textbooks.

Can a single source ever be both?

Not really, but it can be confusing.  For instance, if you are writing a paper about global warming, a newspaper article that discusses new research on the topic issue is a secondary source.  But if you are writing a paper about the media’s coverage of global warming, then the newspaper article is a primary source.  What you are studying changes your relationship to the material. To further muddy the water, a secondary source may very well INCLUDE primary source materials in the form of pictures, statistics, or quotes, and that MIGHT work for your teacher, but it might not.  Likewise, to ensure accuracy, it is a good practice to track down the primary source if you can, just to verify it.


This chart, created by librarians at the Indiana University Bloomington, illustrates kinds of primary and secondary sources by discipline:

Discipline Primary Source Secondary Source
Archeology farming tools treatise on innovative analysis of Neolithic artifacts
Art sketch book conference proceedings on French Impressionists
History Emancipation Proclamation (1863) book on the anti-slavery struggle
Journalism interview biography of publisher Randolph Hearst
Law legislative hearing law review article on anti-terrorism legislation
Literature novel literary criticism on Desolation Angels
Music score of an opera biography of the composer Mozart
Political Science public opinion poll newspaper article on campaign finance reform
Rhetoric speech editorial comment on Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech
Sociology voter registry Ph.D. dissertation on Hispanic voting patterns

The librarians at Princeton offer a good explanation of primary resources.

Depending on the nature of your assignment, you may find primary sources in the book catalog, in the databases, and on the internet.

In the Book Catalog

Books written during the time you are studying are primary sources. Here is a search for the Civil Rights Movement limited to books that were published between 1960 and 1969.

A search in the online catalog fof Civil Rights Movement books published in the 1960s.


In the Databases- Historical Articles

The databases contain two different types of primary sources. The first type is historical articles. You can specify a date range of publication when you search to find articles written during whatever time period you are writing about,

Baby boom and World War II search limited to 1940-1959. A primary source search in ProQuest newspapers.


In the Databases- Original Research Articles

The databases also contain academic and peer-reviewed articles that may contain original research. To find these, search in the databases for combinations of keywords that describe your topic. Then filter your articles (left-hand side of the screen) to peer reviewed and academic journal articles. 


Many of those articles will be primary sources, but not all of them. To make sure, skim the abstract, methods/methodology, and results sections of the articles. Look for statements of process showing that the author actually did‚Äč the work.  What kind of original research is described? Surveying, sampling, experimentation? Does the author describe a first-hand experience?  (i.e.: First my team did this, then we did this, and then something happened!) 


A search for covid-19 and treatement limited to peer reviewed, academic journals.


In the Databases--Documentaries or Interviews

The databases also contain video archives that may contain speeches, interviews, or documentaries about your topic or a person of interest.  Look at our video offerings here.


On the Internet

You may be able to find digitized versions of historical images and archived newspapers online. It is a good idea to verify these as much as possible before including them in your paper. Likewise, you can find statistics and government documents, which also qualify as primary sources. Finally, YouTube or other sites featuring videos may have interviews or speeches.

Go to the (or and search for:
Your Topic AND statistics
Using limits results only to government webpages.
A s4earch for child immigrants AND statistics
Go to the and search for:
"Your Topic" AND interview OR speech
Youtube search for Dr. Martin Luther King and speech


MLA 9th edition citations contain up to nine elements in the following order: 

  1. Author.
    • The author might be a single person, a group, or an organization. 
      • For two authors, write the names like this: Henshaw, Phillip, and Dale Wilson.
      • For more than two authors, write the first-listed author's name followed by et al., like this: Cravitz, Heidi, et al. 
  2. Title of source.
    • The title of the article comes next. If there is no title, simply list it as Untitled or provide a brief description of the source.
    • Italicize the title or put it in quotation marks, depending. 
      • Books, films, and other sources that are self-contained are italicized.
      • Articles and other sources that are part of another container (like a journal) are put in quotation marks.
  3. Title of container.
    • A container is the larger work that the piece you are citing is in. A container could be a newspaper, journal, album, or YouTube channel.  
    • The container title is usually italicized: 
      • Instagram,
      • Literature Today, 
  4. Contributors.
    • A contributor could be a translator, editor, or director. (Not all sources have these!) 
    • Define what kind of contributor it is:
      • Translated by Laura Horowitz,
      • Edited by LaNisha Meriweather,
  5. Version.
    • This could be the edition number, specific translation, or a director's cut of a movie. 
    • Examples:
      • e-book ed.,
      • Authorized King James Version,
  6. Number.
    • The number could be the volume and number of a journal or the season and episode number of a TV shows. 
    • Examples:
      • vol.30, no. 15,
      • season 4, episode 2,
  7. Publisher.
    • The publisher could be the publishing company, television network, radio station, or government agency.
    • Examples:
      • U.S. Department of Education,
      • Montag Press,
  8. Publication date.
    • This is the publication or copyright date. If the source is more specific than simply noting the year, include it. 
      • 2019
      • fall 2021, (do not capitalize season names)
      • 19 Mar. 2020, (use day-month-year order)
  9. Location.
    • For a print work, this will be page number(s). For example, for an article in a journal, the location will be the pages that contain the article. 
      • Write p. for "page" and pp. for "pages": p. 34 or pp. 89-97.
    • For something found digitally, list the URL or DOI. 
      • DOI (digital object identifier) is preferred if one is available. 
      • Include the http:\\ or https:\\

To learn more, check out the HWC MLA9 Libguide.