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Citing Sources

How to use APA Style

APA Style uses in-text citations and reference lists to guide the reader/viewer/audience member to the sources used to create the item. References should contain at least these four base elements:

  • title of the work
  • author/creator name (who wrote, made, produced, filmed, etc.),
  • date of publication (when was the item published, made, produced, filmed, etc.),
  • publication data (publishing company information, edition, volume and issue numbers, online location)

The format and type of source impacts what is and isn't included in the reference. See the examples below.

Formatting Your Paper

APA Style is not just in-text citing and a list of references. It also includes the formatting of your paper. Here are some of the basics elements. For examples, consult the APA FAQ of sample papers. Ask your professor about including a title page, they may not require it.

  • 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Double spacing of all text on all pages, including the References list
  • Each paragraph begins with a First Line indent of .5 inches
  • Each reference is a Hanging indent of .5 inches
  • Font is 12-point Times New Roman or other common serif font
  • Page numbers in the upper right corner on each page, 1/2 inch from top and 1-inch from the right side
  • Shortened title on each page (called a running head), in ALL CAPS, flush left, and on the same line as the page number (1/2 inch from top and 1-inch from the left side)

APA Reference and Citation Examples

Click on the arrows to the right for reference and citation examples for each type of source


Note: Formatting of multiple authors follows the same format as books.

Note: Formatting of multiple authors follows the same format as books.
For electronic versions of books and articles see the examples for that format.

Note: Formatting of multiple authors follows the same format as books.

More Help for APA Style